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【海外风情】宗教历史之旅 — 以色列、约旦自驾遊 (上)

文/圖 : Foley Lau

Israel and Jordan 11 days by car (part 1) – Introduction &  Captions in Chinese  by  Stephen Low

中東於我們, 少時未認識, 大後亦無印象. 稍為有兴趣的是「一千零一夜」故事, 感覺上那是遙遠而神秘的地方, 很大程度歸功於「天方夜譚」中譯名之吸引.

後來荷里活有很長一段時期所拍古装片也有「阿拉伯神灯」等童話电影.但戰爭、宗教、歷史更受歡迎, 大电影明星陣容鼎盛. 或忠或奸, 勾心鬥角劇力萬鈞; 宮殿城池, 战場佈局宏偉, 例如 “Ben Hur" 千軍萬馬極盡視聽之娛. 俗稱<賓虛咁場面>用來形容大陣仗. 又例如 “十誡” , 摩西帶領以色列人出 埃及到紅海边前無去路, 摩西举起手杖把滔滔海水分開, 在没有电腦特技時代拍得出神入化 激動人心成為經典. 它如 “金字塔血淚吏”, “埃及妖后”, “圓桌武士”, “木馬屠城記”, 聖袍千秋”     等等都是歷史離不開宗教, 宗教就是歷史 ,  亦拍出史詩式格局. 可以說, 自己对這方面的有限知識, 早期點點滴滴都來自电影.

多侖多的侄子就不同, 对宗教起源, 歷史背景, 古跡違址都心裡有數. 去年九月与妻子、外母 三人駛車暢遊以色列和約旦, 比一般朝聖者更從容不迫, 看得更多更深入. 以下圖片只是旅行所見如实報导, 無意宣传宗教, 更非時事評論. 我們持開明態度, 像去西藏(藏教), 新疆(伊斯蘭教), 孔庙(儒家), 武当山(道教), 峨嵋山(佛教) 等看寺庙、石窟、佛塔一祥, 是历史或是神話, 見仁見智, 不聽典故只看風景和古跡也無不妥.

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中東各國位置圖

Maps

Map of Israel and neighboring countries.
以色列、約旦位置圖.中英對照.

Day 1. Airport

Day 1 Tel Aviv, Israel
Ben Gurion Airport is Israel’s main international airport, named after David Ben-Gurion, Israel’s first Prime Minister. Numerous security measures are in place, making this one of the most secured airport in the world. Direct flight from Toronto took 10 hours. Displayed on the wall (top left) are several mosaic paintings bottom of which is from Caesarea area dating back to the 6th century AD.
第一天
多侖多10小時直航到達以色列本古里安机場. 世界上最嚴厲保安机場.机場除了6世紀等藝術碎石壁画外,設施現代化.

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Day 1 Caesarea, Israel
Caesarea is located half way between Tel Aviv and Haifa along the Israeli coast. The ancient town of Caesarea and its harbor was built by King Herod around 25–13 BCE. Today we only see the ruins of this once important seaport city of the Roman world.
我們的行程由北面沿海名城 凯撒利亚開始(以色列一座著名的罗马时代古城遗址)是从公元一世纪的地中海城市,现在海边只残留着当年皇宫的遗址.

Caesarea (4)

Day 1 Caesarea, Israel
The Herodian Amphitheatre used for horse racing and sport events during the Roman period (37 BCE – 324 CE)-(King Herod built this race track for entertainment)
紀元前罗馬人統治時代之遺址. 原為希律王賽馬、体育、娛樂之用.

Haifa (1)

Day 1 Haifa, Israel 海法港口
海法市是加利里省首府、以色列最大的港口城市和最重要的工业城市。面积854平方公里,人口25万。
以色列最大的几家大型石油化工企业和最大的科技工业中心现代工业园区均设在海法市。主要工业有炼油、化学药剂、橡胶制品、铸造、军火、电缆、造船、电气设备、无线电、建筑材料、纺织与食品等。海法还是以色列科技研究和高等教育中心,有以色列工业技术研究学院(以色列历史最悠久的高等教育研究机构)和海法大学。海法的电影艺术闻名于世界,每年秋季举办海法国际电影节。
Haifa is Israel’s third largest city, after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. It is a major seaport and home to a number of high tech industries, renowned universities, and petroleum refining and chemical processing plants. The city is situated on the slopes of Mount Carmel, overlooking the Mediterranean. In the foreground of this photo is the Shrine of the Báb and the Bahá’í gardens.

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Day 1 Haifa, Israel
海法港口見証了历史變迁及多个帝國之統治.历史文物丰富. 如今每年吸引了大量遊客遊輪來訪.
For everything in Israel, there is an old and a new. Over the centuries, Haifa has been conquered and ruled by the Phoenicians, Persians, Hasmoneans, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Crusaders, Ottomans, British, and now Israel.
Haifa is also a popular stop for cruise ships.

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Day 2 Tabgha, Israel
Church of Heptagpegon is situated on the site believed to be where Jesus performed the miracle feeding the five thousand with five loaves of bread and two fish, as recorded in the Gospel.
第二天
提比利亞. 這座教堂原址相传是耶穌以五條麵色兩條鱼喂养五千多人的地方

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Day 2 Tabgha, Israel
The original mosaic floor was discovered in the 1930s. The rock that Jesus and his disciples used to lay down the loaves and fishes is believed to be at this site, and seen underneath the church altar.
相传此間石塊就是耶穌及门徒放置麵色和魚施展神迹的所在. 原本小石子、贝壳等天然材料镶嵌而成的地面在1930年被發現.

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Day 2 Tabgha, Israel
Mosaic floor of the loaves and fishes from the original Byzantine church.
神跡故事中之麵包和魚用小石子鑲嵌而成.

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Day 2 Tabgha, Israel
Church of the Primacy of St. Peter is a small Franciscan chapel built to commemorate Jesus’ reinstatement of Peter as his apostle (as recorded in John 21). The church is located by the Sea of Galilee.
加利利海濱之聖被得教堂.環境优美.

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Day 2 Tabgha, Israel
In front of the altar is a rock believed to be where Jesus served his disciples breakfast after his resurrection.
提比利亞 – 圖中大石被認為是耶穌復活後与門徒共進早餐的地方.

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Day 2 Tabgha, Israel
Statue of Jesus and Peter
耶穌与彼得. 三问愛与不愛及餵羊之典故.

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Day 2, Capernaum, Israel
Capernaum was Jesus’ home town and the center of His activities in the area. Jesus chose his first four disciples here: Peter and his brother Andrew, and the two sons of Zebedee, James and John. Later he also chose Matthew the tax collector.
加百衣 – 是耶穌的故鄉. 在此选出四大门徒. 後來收多一个原是徵稅者. – 如今這里已成廢墟

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Day 2, Capernaum, Israel
Synagogue dates back to the 4th century AD. Note the use of white marble hence the name White Synagogue.
白色猶太教堂建于公元四世紀.

Day 2-Capernaum

Day 2, Capernaum, Israel
Colorful flowers of the region.
空氣清新, 精神為之一振

Day 2-Sea of Galilee (1)

Day 2, Tiberias, Israel
Tiberias waterfront is not as tourist friendly and it could be better developed.
太巴列亞 – 海濱渡假勝地. 發展仍需改善.

Sea of Galilee

Day 2 Tiberaus, Israel
The Sea of Galilee is situated in northeast Israel, between the Golan Heights and the Galilee region, in the Jordan Rift Valley, the valley caused by the separation of the African and Arabian Plates.
加利利海 – 在以色列東北

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Day 2 Sea of Galilee, Israel
The Biblical location of the Mount of Beatitudes is likely on the north western shore of the Sea of Galilee. A Roman Catholic Franciscan chapel was built here in 1938 to commemorate the story of the Sermon on the mount.
太巴利亞山上有小教堂紀念山坡传教之往事.遥望加利利海.

Day 2-Yigal Alon Museum

Day 2 Yigal Alon Museum, Israel
Photos of the lives of people living in Kibbutz Ginnosar. Kibbutz is a communal settlement found throughout Israel often along the border regions thereby becoming the first line of defense against enemy aggression.
伊戈尔古船博物館. 部分展出為前線边防居民面貌.

JesusBoat

Day 2 Yigal Alon Museum, Israel
Remains of an ancient Galilee boat dating back to the first century AD. The boat was discovered by two brothers, Moshe and Yuval Lufan, both fishermen from Kibbutz Ginnosar area.
部分為打捞起的古船.

Mount-Tabor-aerial-from-northwest,-tbs121210011-bibleplaces

Day 3 Mount Tabor, Israel
Mount Tabor is believed to be the site of the transfiguration of Jesus, as recorded in Matt 17. Photo shows the zig zag road leading to the top of the mountain, where a Franciscan church has been built to commemorate the transfiguration event.
第三天
他泊山-基督登山变形教堂. 圖見彎彎曲曲上山路.

Tabor15s

Day 3 Mount Tabor,  is believed to be the traditional site of the transfiguration of Jesus.
The Church of the Transfiguration was built in 1924 by the Franciscan Order under architect Antonio Barluzzi, a Franciscan monk who also built the Church of All Nations .
大博尔山乃耶穌变容之聖地.教堂建于1924年

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Day 3 Mount Tabor, Israel
the transfiguration of Jesus.
The mosaic shows Jesus in the center with prophet Elijah on the right and Moses (holding the tablets of the Ten Commandments) on the left. The three disciples Peter, James and John watching from below.
基督登山变形的故事. 左: 摩西手拿「十誡」.

Day 3-Mount Tabor (1)

Day 3 Mount Tabor, Israel
Mount Tabor is strategically located on the north-east side of Jezreel valley, along the main north-south ancient road known as the Via Maris. The highest spot on the mountain is 1,843 feet above sea level. Numerous types of trees and flowers found on the church ground indicating that the monks are good gardeners!
視野广闊, 傳教士還是園藝家.

Day 3-Mount Tabor (3) #92

Day 3 Mount Tabor, Israel
Mediterranean plants and flowers…
地中海花草樹木美不勝收.

Day 3-Mount Tabor (2) #81

Day 3 Mount Tabor, Israel
In the battle between Israel and the Canaanites, three tribes (Issachar, Naphtali and Zebulun) suffered the most from the Canaanites in the north. Deborah was a prophetess and Judge from the tribe of Ephraim. She rallied the other tribes to send soldiers for this battle. Barak knew that the Israelites were no match against the 900 chariots of iron of the Canaanites. He cleverly selected this place for the battle, where the chariots could not climb up Mount Tabor and also ineffective in the muddy grounds of the Jezreel valley (where Eva is pointing).
古時以色列迎战 迦南人, 以色列女將特波拉以此高山為基地, 迦南人威力驚人的九百战車無法上山, 在山下的沼澤(Eva 所指的地方) 战車也無用武之地.

Day 3-Mount Herzl

Day 3 Yad Vashem, West Jerusalem, Israel
Main entrance to Yad Vashem, which is Israel’s official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust, established in 1953 through the Memorial Law passed by the Knesset, Israel’s parliament. The origin of the name is taken from a Biblical verse: “And to them will I give in my house and within my walls a memorial and a name that shall not be cut off.” (Isaiah 56:5). In Hebrew, “a memorial and a name” translates as Yad Va-shem.
來到猶太人遭遇到大屠殺的耶路撒冷紀念館.
Yad Vashem来自:“我必使他们在我殿中、在我墙内、有纪念、有名号、比有儿女的更美.我必赐他们永远的名、不能剪除。”“有纪念、有名号”的希伯来语原文发音.

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Day 3 Yad Vashem, West Jerusalem, Israel
The museum sits on top of Mount Herzl, one of four “mountains” (or high hills) in Jerusalem. The other three mountains are Mount Zion, Mount of Olives, and Temple Mount (a.k.a. Mount Moriah).
紀念館建于耶路撒冷四小山之一, 夏琐山上.清楚看到住宅區.

Day 5- 183,186

Day 3 Yad Vashem, West Jerusalem, Israel
The Holocaust History Museum consists of nine underground galleries depicting the lives of Jews who lived and died under the Nazis and their collaborators. The exhibits incorporate a wide variety of original artifacts, testimonies, photographs, documentation and video footage.
The names and personal details of millions of victims have been recorded on pages of Testimony, symbolic tombstones filled out by survivors in memory of their loved ones, and preserved in the Hall of Names.
館内有9个地下展覽室.  此為遭納粹屠殺者部分照片, 還有文件和錄影等等, 驚心動魄.

Day 5-Yad Vashem (3) 187

Day 3 Yad Vashem, West Jerusalem, Israel
At the end of the underground galleries and exhibits in the Holocaust History Museum, we arrived to a view of the surrounding landscape .
紀念館建築新潮宏偉与眾不同.

Day 3-Mount Herzl (2)#103

Day 3 Yad Vashem, West Jerusalem, Israel
Warsaw Ghetto Square – this sculpture entitled “The Last March” depicts the mass deportation of the Jews to the death camps.
華沙集中营 “最後一程” 銅版畫

Day 3-Mount Herzl (3)-104 cut

Day 3 Yad Vashem, West Jerusalem, Israel
“The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising” depicts the leader of the uprising, Mordechai Anielewicz, in the middle with fellow fighters around him.
“華沙” 起義. 前仆後繼.

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Day 3 Yad Vashem, West Jerusalem, Israel
Janusz Korczak Square – A tribute to the great Polish-Jewish educator Dr. Henrik Goldschmidt, known by his pseudonym Janusz Korczak, who ran an orphanage in the Warsaw Ghetto. Despite his efforts to save his wards, Korczak and approximately 200 children from his orphanage were sent to the Treblinka death camp on August 5, 1942.
在華沙猶太人街孤兒院幫助过200兒童的金医生(大头像)也遭毒手.

Day 5-Yad Vashem (4)-191

Day 3 Yad Vashem, West Jerusalem, Israel
Hall of Rememberance contains a memorial flame that burns continuously, next to a crypt containing ashes of victims brought from the extermination camps.
纪念聖火与受害者骨灰

Day 5- the cattle train & wall

Day 3 Yad Vashem, West Jerusalem, Israel
Cattle Car – a monument to the millions of Jews herded onto cattle-cars and transported from all over Europe to the extermination camps. Engraved on the wall is an emotional testimony of a Holocaust survivor.
數以百萬計欧洲猶太人被這些載牲畜車箱送入集中营等死. 牆上是幸存者对那段經历的描寫..对大屠殺之真情控訴.

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Day 3 Yad Vashem, West Jerusalem, Israel
The Garden of the Righteous Among the Nation.
The Righteous were defined as non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust
國际義人花園. 紀念在大屠殺那段日子里, 非猶太人助救猶太人之熱心人士.

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Day 4 Muslim Quarter, Old Jerusalem, Israel
We happened to visit Jerusalem during the week long Festival of Sukkot (The Feast of Tabernacles) so most museums and shops in the Jewish Quarter were closed.
第四天
耶路撒冷旧城穆斯林回教区. 今天公眾假期很多店舖暫停营業.(住棚節)
耶路撒冷旧城是犹太教、伊斯兰教和基督教世界三大宗教发源地,三教都把耶路撒冷视为自己的圣地。宗教和传统、历史和神学以及神圣的处所和祈祷的房屋,使耶路撒冷成为备受犹太教徒、基督教徒和穆斯林崇敬的神圣城市。

Day 4-Muslim Quarter -118

Day 4 Muslim Quarter, Old Jerusalem, Israel
Soldiers on regular patrol in the old city area, and giving escort to Jews passing through the Arab neighborhood.
旧城常有士兵巡邏, 或護送猶太人進入阿拉伯區. 士兵長期處於作战或備战狀態,对遊客也算友善.

Day 4-Temple Mount -121

Day 4 Muslim Quarter, Old Jerusalem, Israel
The Dome of the Rock was built between 689 and 691 AD, on the site many scholars believed to be the Holy of Holies in the Jewish Temple which was destroyed in 70 AD by the Romans.
盤石大殿 -金光閃閃圓頂只是整堵大岩石的一小角.岩脈還伸展很遠. 外牆八角內部呈圓形.相传是猶太圣殿-至圣所-原址上興建而成. 是遊耶路撒冷必到之處.

Day 4-Jewish Quarter -119

Day 4 Jewish Quarter, Old Jerusalem, Israel
The Western Wall (哭牆) is a remnant of the ancient wall that surrounded the Jewish Temple’s courtyard dating back to the time of the Second Temple period built by Herod the Great around 19 BCE.
公元前希律王建成的second time聖殿在公元七十年被罗馬人攻陷耶路撒冷拆毀,又放逐猶太人出國.現在僅存此護土牆,被奉為民族精神和宗教信仰的共同心向焦點. 這就是哭牆.牆高18米, 牆下廣場以欄杆分隔成男女兩边.

Day 4-Jewish Quarter (2)-137

Day 4 Jewish Quarter, Old Jerusalem, Israel
The Western Wall (哭牆) has been a site for Jewish prayer and pilgrimage for centuries
哭亡國之痛、迫害之苦、屠殺之惨. 來到這里的猶太人在牆下禱告、默想甚至哀哭.有時可以唱歌 跳舞或举行節日活动.牆上高處隙縫生了雜草, 低處隙縫塞滿了許願小紙條,塞不進去也要硬塞, 急於将自已的祈禱呈上天堂。 世界上再沒有像哭牆這樣特别而震撼力這樣大的建築.

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Day 4 Christian Quarter, Old Jerusalem.
Church of Holy Sepulcher(聖墓教堂). The word sepulcher means a small room cut in rock or built of stone, inside which a dead person is laid. The church was built by the first Christian Emperor Constantine I in 325-326 AD but was subsequently damaged and destroyed during various conflicts. The famous Immovable ladder can be seen in the photo.
旧城基督教堂 – 纪念耶稣受難被钉十字架及其葬礼.(commemorate the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and his burial)

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Day 4 Mount of Olives, East Jerusalem, Israel
A quick snapshot of the Kidron valley and Mount Olives from the top of the eastern wall before we were chased away. The Church of All Nations located at the garden of Gethsemane, seen under scaffolding in the foreground. The Russian Church of Mary Magdalene, seen with the golden onion domes, was built by Tsar Alexander III to honor his mother. Dominus Flevit is seen half way up the mountain, which is shaped like a tear drop as Jesus wept over the future destruction of the city.
在哭牆之東远眺橄欖山拍照被人趕.大概是我们立足險地. 圖中所見多處地方、建築等都有一段历史. 故此照片弥足珍贵.

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Day 4 Mount of Olives, East Jerusalem, Israel
Garden of Gethsemane, a portrait of Jesus praying in the Garden of Gethsemane. “And being in an agony He prayed more earnestly, and His sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground” (Luke 22:44).
客西马尼园-耶稣苦闷时就常在园里橄榄树間祈祷. 现还剩下8颗当年的橄榄树.

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Day 4 Mount of Olives, East Jerusalem, Israel
Ancient olive trees in the Garden of Gethsemane, gauging from the size of the tree trunk some possibly dating back to the time of Christ.
這就是那些古代留存下來的橄欖樹.

Day 4-Gethsemane (1)-Gardener

Day 4 Mount of Olives, East Jerusalem, Israel
This man introduced himself to us as the gardener.
亞叔自稱是這里的園丁.

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Day 4 Mount of Olives, East Jerusalem, Israel
Old Jewish Cemetery located on the Mount of Olives. Mount Zion (City of David) is seen in the distance at one o’clock, across from the Kirdon valley.
上到橄欖山. 旧猶太墓園遙望鍚安山.

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Day 4 Mount of Olives, East Jerusalem, Israel
Church of Dominus Flevit, meaning “cry of the Lord”, believed to be built on the site where Jesus mourned over Jerusalem.
弗列维特小教堂.

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Day 4 Mount of Olives, East Jerusalem, Israel
The view of Old Jerusalem from Dominus Flevit Church on Mount of Olives.
弗列維特教堂外望耶路撒冷旧城

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Day 4 Mount Zion, East Jerusalem, Israel
Church of St. Peter Gallicantu is the traditional site where Peter denied Jesus three times while the cock crowed twice, as foretold by Jesus during the last supper. The church is situated on the foothill of Mount Zion, the Jebusite city of Jerusalem that King David conquered (2 Samuel 5:7).
上到錫安山之聖彼得加利加都教堂(左)
右為教堂人員”宿舍”.

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Day 4 Mount Zion, East Jerusalem, Israel
Jesus spent the night in the dungeon of the High priest Caiaphas’ house
耶穌曾于此地牢监狱住了一晚.

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Day 4 Mount Zion, East Jerusalem, Israel
Non novi illum means “I do not know him” in Latin. Peter denied knowing Jesus a third time and the rooster crowed.
雕像顯示「门徒彼得三答不識耶蘇及公雞啼」之典故.

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Day 4 Mount Zion, East Jerusalem, Israel
View of Mount of Olives from Mount Zion
鍚安山回望橄欖山

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Golgotha 各各他- 意思是 髑髅 地.
This area near the Garden Tomb has the shape of a skull. the place is said to be where Jesus was crucified. ( Golgotha is an Aramaic word meaning the Skull).
基督被钉死之地(位于Jerusalem東面)

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Day 5 Garden Tomb, East Jerusalem, Israel
The Garden Tomb is believed by some to be the burial site of Jesus, located outside the old city wall to the east
第五天
有人認為這是耶穌之墓穴

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Day 5 Mount of Olives, East Jerusalem, Israel
Sunset over Old Jerusalem. The city wall was rebuilt by Suleiman the Magnificence in 1500 AD.
旧城日落. 城牆由奧斯曼帝國之蘇利民大帝建于公元1500年. 鏡頭顯示出耶路撒冷最暑名景點之一。
(或譯蘇萊曼大帝)

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